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Direct-Indirect Speech - Simple Sentences

आइए देखें कि हम Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलने के लिए क्या बदलाव करते हैं:

Let's see what changes we make to convert Direct Speech to Indirect Speech:

Example: Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Example: Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.
Heads In Direct Speech Changed in Indirect Speech
Reporting Verb said to told
Inverted Commas , "..." Removed and used 'that' to join both parts
Pronoun of Reported Speech I, my he, his
Reported Speech Verb/Tense Helping verb 'have'/Present Perfect Tense Helping verb 'had'/Past Perfect Tense

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General Rules for Simple Sentences

Rule No. 1

सबसे पहले, हम रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब को देखते हैं। रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब किसी ऑब्जेक्ट के साथ या बिना ऑब्जेक्ट के आ सकता है। जब यह ऑब्जेक्ट के बिना आता है, तो ऐसा लगता है - रिपोर्टर ‘say/says/will say/said’, और जब यह एक ऑब्जेक्ट के साथ आता है, तो ऐसा लगता है - रिपोर्टर ‘say to/says to/will say to/said to’. First of all, we see the Reporting Verb. Reporting Verb can come with an object or without an object. When it comes without object, it looks like – Reporter say/says/will say/said, and when it comes with an object, it looks like – Reporter 'say to/says to/will say to/said' to An Object.
यदि रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब ऑब्जेक्ट के बिना है, तो रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब - ‘say/says/will say/said’ अपरिवर्तित रहती है और जब रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब किसी ऑब्जेक्ट के साथ आती है, तो परिवर्तन इस तरह से होते हैं: If Reporting Verb is without object, the Reporting Verbs - 'say/says/will say/said' remain unchanged and when the Reporting Verb comes with an object, the changes happen in this way:
Reporting Verb without Object No change in Indirect Speech Reprting Verb with Object Changed to in Indirect Speech
say, say say to ... tell ...
says, says says to ... tells ...
will say, will say will say to ... will tell ...
said, said said to ... told ...

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